Unlike Gold, Glory, and Gems; Traitstones and various Jewels function as valuable resources that allow you to craft new items or gain access to new game content.
Traitstones are resources with various levels of rarity and value. Use Traitstones to add "Traits" or additional perks and affects to your Troops. Each Trait requires various Traitstones based around the Kingdom the Troop is from and the type of Spell they have. There are Minor, Major, Runic, Arcane and Celestial Traitstones. Each Traitstone has a different color and size depending on its rarity.
Go here for a full list of all Traitstones and the Kingdoms they are from.
Traitstones can be obtained from PVP and Explore battles, Kingdom Quests and Challenges, by opening any chest (the rarity of the Traitstone available depends on the value of the chest), and purchasing packs from the Shop. Traitstones can be purchased for real money or with Glory in the Shop and for Gems in Raid Boss, Invasion, and other Live Events.
Tip: The best way to earn Traitstones is by quickly completing Explore battles.
Some packs contain Traitstones only while others may include a special Legendary Troop as well from the Kingdom featured in that week's event.
Jewels, Diamonds, and Shards
Jewels and Shards are used primarily as crafting resources in the Soulforge by mid to late game players. The rarest crafting resources are Jewels which include include Sapphires, Emeralds, Rubies, Garnets, Amethyst and Topaz. Diamonds (not Gems) and Shards are also both used for crafting but are found in higher quantities.
Shards and Diamonds can be obtained from completing Guild Tasks, Dungeon Battles, rewards in Raid Boss, Invasion and other Live Events, and by purchasing Dungeon Offers for real money or Gems in the Dungeon game-mode. Jewels are also found in Dungeon battles, the Dungeon Offers and from Pet Rescue Events. They can also be crafted in the Soulforge using Shards and Souls.
To check how many Jewels you have, select the Jewel icon at the top of the screen in the Soulforge or by going to Hero > Inventory from the World Map.